CARDARINE (GW501516) Review | Buy Cardarine LiquidAdmin
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Experimental studies of cardarine will open new possibilities in medicine. Investigation of this research chemical demonstrates its potential to boost metabolism, increase fat burning, prevent obesity, and increase muscle growth in research studies. Loti Labs is your best choice to purchase the USA made cardarine if you are a scientist. It is strictly for research purposes and should NOT be used for human consumption.
In this review, we aim to consolidate existing clinical evidence of cardarine, highlighting its clinical prospects and challenges.
WHAT IS CARDARINE
Cardarine is also known as GW501516, GW1516 or Endurobol, and is an aromatic ether that is phenoxy acetic acid. It is a synthetic Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) beta/delta Agonist. It is not a SARM, which stands for selective androgen receptor modulators, as previously thought in some circles, because it doesn’t act directly on androgen receptors.
PPARβ/δ is demonstrated in all tissues. It is abundant in the liver, intestine, kidney, abdominal adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, all of which are involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. It takes part in fatty acid oxidation in skeletal and cardiac muscles, and regulating blood cholesterol concentrations, reducing adiposity and glucose levels, preventing obesity. In animal test subjects, PPARβ/δ is a regulator of fat consumption.
Their crucial biological roles dictate the significance of PPAR-targeting synthetic ligands in medical research and pharmaceutical discovery. Clinical implications of PPAR agonists span across a wide range of health conditions, including metabolic diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases, infections, autoimmune diseases, neurological and psychiatric disorders, and malignancies.
Cardarine reverses multiple abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome without increasing oxidative stress. This is consistent with PPARβ/δ being a potentially important target for providing cardiovascular protection in metabolic syndrome-like patients.
STRUCTURE OF CARDARINE
IUPAC Name: 2-[2-methyl-4-[[4-methyl-2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,3-thiazol-5-yl]methylsulfanyl]phenoxy]acetic acid
Molecular Formula: C21H18 F3NO3S2
Molecular weight: 453.5 g/moll
CAS number: 317318-70-0
MECHANISM OF ACTION
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that govern the expression of genes responsible for energy metabolism, cellular development, and differentiation.
Cardarine regulates glucose and lipid homeostasis. PPARβ/δ is expressed in most tissues in rodents such as the epithelia of the intestine, colon, and skin. It regulates fatty acid oxidation in these tissues increasing serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in insulin-resistant rats. It also decreases serum triglycerides, preventing high fat diet-induced obesity, increasing insulin sensitivity, and improving symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome through regulating the genes encoding fatty acid metabolizing enzymes in skeletal muscle, and the genes encoding lipogenic proteins in the liver.
Cardarine promotes terminal differentiation in keratinocytes, intestinal epithelium, oligodendrocytes, and osteoblasts, which is important for tumor development.
Recently, studies in experimental animals demonstrated that cardarine plays a beneficial role in the treating of Metabolic syndrome, a disease characterized by multiple disorders, such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis.
Glucose intolerance improves after treating with cardarine. The fasting blood glucose, and the serum high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‐C) level is normalized. Postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin, leptin, free fatty acid (FFA) levels, and total cholesterol/HDL‐C ratio were also significantly decreased.
Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results indicated that the above arrangements might be due to:
(i) Enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in muscle, adipose tissue, and the liver.
(ii) Improvement of insulin‐stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue.
(iii) Reduced local glucocorticoid synthesis.
Therefore, cardarine could significantly ameliorate dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in monosodium l‐glutamate mice, and activation of PPARδ could be envisioned as a useful strategy against human metabolic syndrome and related diseases such as diabetic cardiomyopathy.
CARDARINE SIDE EFFECTS
The development of cardarine was discontinued because of its pro-oncogenic properties observed in animal studies. Longer clinical trials are needed to yield an in-depth understanding of its clinical efficacy and safety. Some of its potential side effects are:
- Increased cell death in liver cells and liver damage in some mice with liver disease.
- Its ability to cause cancer in animal study was the main reason why GSK abandoned its development in 2007. Its high expression in the large intestine was implicated in the development of colon cancer. Similarly, activation of PPARβ/δ also stimulated the cell line proliferation in breast and prostate cancer.
You can purchase cadarine from Loti Labs. It is important to buy research liquids which are USA-made, to ensure the integrity of your research. Cardarine is tested to ensure quality. It is available in liquid form and is commonly sold at a concentration of 10mg per ml.
- National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Endurobol, CID=9803963, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Endurobol (accessed on Dec. 8, 2019)
- Olson EJ, Pearce GL, Jones NP, Sprecher DL. Lipid effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ agonist GW501516 in subjects with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: characteristics of metabolic syndrome. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32(9):2289–2294. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.112.247890
- Grygiel-Górniak B. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their ligands: nutritional and clinical implications–a review. Nutr J. 2014;13:17. Published 2014 Feb 14. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-13-17
- Marjorie A. Peraza, Andrew D. Burdick, Holly E. Marin, Frank J. Gonzalez, Jeffrey M. Peters, The Toxicology of Ligands for Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR), Toxicological Sciences, Volume 90, Issue 2, April 2006, Pages 269–295, https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfj062
- Oliver WR Jr, Shenk JL, Snaith MR, et al. A selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta agonist promotes reverse cholesterol transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(9):5306–5311. doi:10.1073/pnas.091021198
- Dressel U, Allen TL, Pippal JB, Rohde PR, Lau P, Muscat GE. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta agonist, GW501516, regulates the expression of genes involved in lipid catabolism and energy uncoupling in skeletal muscle cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17(12):2477–2493. doi:10.1210/me.2003-0151
- Chen W, Gao R, Xie X, et al. A metabolomic study of the PPARδ agonist GW501516 for enhancing running endurance in Kunming mice. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9884. Published 2015 May 6. doi:10.1038/srep09884